Friday, August 28, 2020

The Great Gatsby American Dream Essay -- F. Scott Fitzgerald

The Great Gatsby is a novel that delineates the general public in the 1920's and the related convictions, qualities and dreams of the American populace around then. These convictions, qualities and dreams can be summarized be what is named the American Dream, a fantasy of cash, riches, flourishing and the bliss that as far as anyone knows accompanied the blasting economy and pyramid schemes that framed the fundamental black market of American high society. This black market penetrated the higher classes and made such an ethical rot inside general society that made ready for the destroying of dreams and running of expectations as they were put unquestionably in the opportunity for circumstances that could be seized by every last one. Scott Fitzgerald outlines the American Dream and the foul residue or the imprudence of a general public that drifts in the wake of this fantasy. By taking a gander at each character and their circumstance and desire it tends to be seen that the American D ream was not constrained to one social class or sort of individual, that it was across the country and was found inside everybody. From the situation as storyteller the peruser approaches the considerations and sentiments of Nick Carraway more than some other characters, however this equivalent position likewise diminishes the viability of the peruser as an appointed authority of character since he is introduced in a one-sided route contrasted with others. All things considered, it very well may be seen that Nick experiences extraordinarily his encounters in New York. His respect for human conventionality is demolished and he leaves with his expectations ran and an appall at how the realism that spins out of control all through his social class is fit for destroying lives and dreams. Scratch, similarly as with all characters is a devotee to the American Dream on the grounds that even he moves East to work in the bond bu... ...hen she discusses reckless individuals, saying she detests thoughtless individuals when she concedes that she is one.) that add to the general moral rot inside the American gentry. Fitzgerald shows that in the social classes that were spoken to in The Great Gatsby there is a running topic of how the American dream influences the entirety of the characters, they each have their own goals for their own life yet as a rule they rotate around cash and the impacts that riches has on their style of life. As a result of the disastrous occasions inside The Great Gatsby and the way that the characters who are as yet alive toward the finish of the novel, bar Nick, are not definitely adjusted by their experience loan to the view that the 1920's and 1930's or the Jazz Age held a general public of individuals who were governed by realism and paltry and depthless convictions and qualities. - Cam

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Mental Health Of Older People Social Work Essay

Emotional well-being Of Older People Social Work Essay Advancing the emotional well-being of more seasoned individuals is turning into a movement of expanding significance. In the approaching decades, there will be an expanding the quantity of more seasoned individuals. There will be less youngsters and youthful grown-ups. In the year 2050, 30 percent of the individuals will be more seasoned than 65 years old, while 11 percent of the individuals will be 80 years of age or more. The word mature age has no settled upon definition. In many nations, individuals resign at an age of 60 to 65 years. This is viewed as the age when one turns into a more seasoned individual. As per the European commission, there are three age bunches that more seasoned individuals can be separated into. The main gathering is more established specialists from the age of 55 to 64. The subsequent gathering is more seasoned individuals from the age of 65 to 79 years while the third gathering is 80 years or more. These more seasoned age bunches are the most various reg arding instruction, mentalities, family foundation, social foundation, side interests, inclinations and political connections. Emotional wellness in later life models and issues There are six primary factors that impact psychological wellness. These are money related security, life length encounters, basic factors, for example, lodging, business, social help and individual adapting aptitudes. The emotional wellness of more established individuals just as their prosperity issues in more seasoned individuals are interesting and have a more noteworthy importance to them. Retirement is an issue that has extraordinary pertinence to individuals who are 60 to 80 years age. As much as it implies alleviation from duties, retirement likewise mean lost status, less social connections and a diminished job throughout everyday life. This age bunch likewise experiences wellbeing and physical disintegration, changing the earth from moving their home, loss of money related security and lost feeling of having a place. Individuals who are 80 years or more progressively lose their companions, relatives and mates. They utilize their feeling of direction throughout everyday life and their practical capacity disintegrates. These individuals continually manage mourning, passing and the way that their own life is finishing. Not those more established individuals are the equivalent. They have various qualities, educational encounters, wellbeing, monetary status and culture. When arranging the advancement of the psychological wellness for more seasoned individuals, these elements ought to be placed into thought. Coherence through the existence course A people coherence through life gives them a constructive history loaded up with encounters. This coherence gives an individual a lot of qualities that manages their conduct. When working with more established individuals who have psychological well-being needs, the techniques utilized ought to have a psychosocial and sociological point of view that can bolster the more seasoned individuals during their progress. A significant part of the work with more established individuals depends on the coherence through their life. Each individual has an inward and outer self. With the end goal for one to have an upbeat and effective mature age, one should be upheld in dealing with their existence with a specific general system. With regards to the inward self, individuals ought to be permitted to settle on choices like they have consistently done it, keep up their respectability and their confidence. In the outside self, individuals need to proportional connections, proceed in positive jobs, s ave social help and make up for mental and physical misfortunes. Interruption of the interior and outside components is probably going to uplift the misery and poor mental self views of individuals. Having joins previously, being definitively dynamic, feeling installed inside society and being able to keep carrying on with a real existence that harmonizes with ones individual convictions would all be able to add to living a fruitful and upbeat mature age. No underestimation ought to be made with regards to the importance of having social connections and keeping up great psychological wellness for the more seasoned individuals. Significant variables that can forestall the danger of despondency and social segregation in more established individuals are close connections, equal connections, nature of ties and the nearness of a compatriot. These components ought to be accessible both at the network and in care homes. Ageism In the public eye today, there exists a contrary and deteriorating mentality towards more established individuals. While ageism influences all age gatherings, it is seen as progressively significant with more established individuals. Ageism exists in governmental issues, industrialism, media, deliberate life, wrongdoing, plan, city life and numerous other everyday issue. Age separation is a maltreatment of human rights that causes individual hardship and enduring and financial and social issues. It is in this manner vital for legislators to guarantee that an adjustment in human rights is actualized for more seasoned individuals. There must be no resilience at all to any sort of segregation. In advancing emotional well-being, it is particularly critical to guarantee that age balance is advanced. More seasoned individuals reserve the option to completely take an interest in the political, social, monetary and social dynamic procedures of their social orders. To advance regard and compr ehension between the youthful and more seasoned individuals, intergenerational exercises can be utilized. Workers who serve general society ought to likewise be prepared and instructed on the best way to regard and worth the more seasoned individuals that they have direct contact with. In an ongoing study completed by (reference), it was discovered that 29 percent of individuals had endured age segregation when contrasted with different sorts of separation. This overview additionally found that by the age of 55 years, age segregation was twice as prone to have been encounters rather than different types of separation. Besides, it is accepted by 30 percent of individuals that there is more age segregation today than there was five years prior, and this pattern is probably going to deteriorate. This overview additionally discovered that the segment move towards a general public with more seasoned individuals than more youthful individuals will exacerbate life as far as instruction, security, wellbeing, expectations for everyday comforts and occupations. Indeed, one of the respondents from this overviews said that they saw the individuals who were 70 years of age or more to be unfit and clumsy. On first October, 2006, another law that was upheld by the Employment Equality Regulations became effective in England, Scotland and Wales. This law shields individuals from age separation in business, grown-up work and preparing for individuals from all age gatherings. Be that as it may, this new guideline doesn't give insurance from age separation in medicinal services. It is along these lines significant for carers and social specialists to portray their convictions and qualities obviously and on a succinct way. Realizing ones qualities is a significant guide while thinking about the more seasoned individuals. To make a typical shared vision between the carers and the social specialists, it is significant that an activity to explain their qualities be done. This training will give the carers and social specialists a mutual vision and reason. Advancing emotional well-being and prosperity what may be associated with training When working with more seasoned individuals, advancing their psychological well-being ought to be viewed as a piece of regular work and not as a unique task. Since the more seasoned individual may remain in the private office for a moderately brief timeframe, the exercises arch to advance psychological well-being ought to be both present moment and long haul. There are seven standards in advancing the emotional well-being of oder individuals. The primary chief is that the objective gathering ought to be characterized and how, when and where they can be reached is recognized. The subsequent chief is that the more established individuals ought to be associated with building up an arrangement, executing and assessing the projects and openings. The third chief is that the wellbeing and social requirements for the more seasoned individuals ought to be tended to. The fourth rule is that the more seasoned individuals ought to be engaged and spurred to take activities to guarantee their own wellbeing and prosperity. The fifth guideline is that boundaries that influence the limit of more established individuals to partake in the public arena ought to be distinguished. These boundaries are social, financial and political in nature. In the wake of recognizing these obstructions, mediations ought to be done to beat them. The 6th guideline is that regard ought to be given to the freedom and self-sufficiency of more seasoned individuals. The last rule is that all encompassing and multi-confronted mediations ought to be made to consider the psychological, social and physical needs of more seasoned individuals. The connection between these necessities ought to likewise be thought of. A few open doors for contribution in exercises that are important for more established individuals ought to be given. Imaginative exercises that more seasoned individuals can take part in are historical centers, expressions, exhibitions, libraries and other social occasions. The individual and social acknowledgment of the more seasoned individuals can be encouraged by deep rooted learning programs. Chipping in and network improvement activity that more seasoned individuals can take an interest in can offer an extra type of useful cooperation. This cooperation will expand the psychological wellness of the more seasoned individual who is chipping in just as the individuals getting the administrations. Solid way of life decisions among more seasoned individuals ought to likewise be advanced. To have a decent quality life, one must have great wellbeing. Having great physical wellbeing relies upon an assortment of elements. These elements incorporate way of life, hereditary cosmetics, decisions, ecological components and financial variables. In spite of their every day exercises being confined by having a restricting long haul sickness, numerous more seasoned individuals believe themselves to be healthy. Embracing a solid way of life can forestall or postpone a large number of the ceaseless conditions that are found to influence individuals in their mature age. A solid way of life can be embraced by work out, lessening liquor admission, eating a reasonable sound eating routine and abstaining from smoking. Helps and adjustments can be given to assist individuals with keeping portable. Constructive psychological wellness can be advanced by giving consolation, data and open doors for mo re seasoned individuals to settle on sound decisions in their way of life. Physical actuivity

Friday, August 21, 2020

Achilles Vs. Gilgamesh essays

Achilles Vs. Gilgamesh papers Achilles and Gilgamesh are two epic legends who share numerous likenesses. The two men are rulers of their individual places, their subjects admire them and anticipate an appropriate connection among them and society. Both Achilles and Gilgamesh have superhuman quality and are intently attached to the Gods, Gilgamesh since he is 2/3 god and Achilles since he is the child of Zeus. The Greeks and Mesopotamians consider them legends and admire them for comprehension of how the divine beings identify with man. Achilles and Gilgamesh are prideful and both long to live long lives and have their names be recalled. The longing for their requirements to live long famous lives shows that the Greeks and Mesopotamians loved life and legends. Among the likenesses there are additionally a few contrasts. Gilgamesh through the span of the epic creates as a character on account of his companion Endiku and his journeys for fame and everlasting status. Not at all like Gilgamesh Achilles doesn't grow fundamentally through the span of the epic. In spite of the fact that the demise of Patroclus prompts him to look for compromise with Agamemnon, he despite everything keeps on being irate until King Priam asks for Hectors body and Achilles is helped to remember his dad. After Endikus demise Gilgamesh is pushed to scan for everlasting status on account of Endiku which shows that Mesopotamians socially underscored ties with your kindred companions and the significance of companions. After Patroclus passing Achilles is fuelled by his indignation and continues battling for him demonstrating that Greeks socially underlined ties with your family and the significance of affection. ... <!

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Where to Find the Best Free Essay Samples

Where to Find the Best Free Essay SamplesIn the past, any high school student that had a passion for writing and wanted to earn a degree, would need to take different forms of education courses in order to be able to pursue their academic career. However, today, a person can earn their high school degree from just one or two essays. Because of this, there are no more requirements for it in terms of class completion and schedules.Being a good essay writer can also make you a strong choice for getting an excellent job. With today's jobs, businesses are more competitive than ever and people will consider someone that has a lot of experience in this field and how it will make them a good worker. Since there are plenty of people who are interested in getting a degree in this field, it has become much easier to get into this type of job.One of the main reasons why there are so many people who are ready to become a graduate, is because of the advancement of technology in this field. Since t here are numerous companies that are working on making their staffs for more productive, they are recruiting and hiring experts in this field. This will make their businesses more efficient and give them an edge when it comes to producing a product or service.Besides, there are plenty of websites that will offer free college essay samples for high school students to make them write a good college essay. Just like anything else, if you are willing to give your time and effort, it is almost always possible to do so. With all of these, finding the right essay samples is also very easy.Most of the people who are interested in writing a college essay can use the examples and instructions that will be provided by the professional. However, there are still some who prefer to do it on their own and create their own examples. For this, they can simply look for the sample essays online or anywhere else on the internet. These will offer them tips and advices on how to write an excellent colleg e essay.Some of the websites have different high school students as well as professionals from different countries who are offering samples. The best thing that these websites can offer you is that they will show you how to write an average essay. This will also teach you to make it something that you are proud of. These would also guide you through the types of questions that you will have to answer and give you tips on the places that you should put the information.There are so many websites that offer free essay samples that have essays that will make it easier for you to write an excellent college essay. Besides, it will also help you to find the places that can offer you better essay samples. Be sure to take a look at all of these and you will be able to make it much easier for you to be a successful student.

Friday, May 15, 2020

From January 16, 1919 To December 5,1933, The Volstead

From January 16, 1919 to December 5,1933, the Volstead Act made it illegal to sale, manufacture, or transport alcohol. Although the Volstead Act was to stop drinking completely, it did just the opposite. People were willing to drink alcohol illegally which gave way to bootlegging, speakeasies, gangsters and organized crime.Mark Twain summarizes this time by saying, â€Å"Prohibition only drives drunkenness behind doors and does not cure it, or even diminish it.† Prohibition, by this time, had become a long-standing issue. Groups such as the Anti-Saloon League and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union had been around since the 1800s. Conceived by Wayne Wheeler, the leader of the Anti-Saloon League, the Eighteenth Amendment passed†¦show more content†¦(Beverly Gage)These groups became known as the â€Å"Drys† and those who were against them were known as the â€Å"Wets†. The â€Å"wets† were in favor of keeping alcohol and wanted to keep it by any means necessary. After the Volstead Act was passed, bootlegging and gangsterism became very popular. Bootleggers first began to import alcohol from Canada and Mexico, but soon began importing from the Bahamas, Cuba, and the French islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, off the southern coast of Newfoundland. (Britannica). As time went on, the citizens of the United States became more daring and began making their own alcohol and created â€Å"underground† bars called speakeasies. One of the most famous bootleggers of this time was Al Capone. New York Times called him,†The symbol of a shameful era, the monstrous symptom of a disease which was eating into the conscience of America.† Not only were these bootleggers transporting and selling alcohol in speakeasies, but now doctors pushed prescription alcohol to â€Å"cure† illnesses. Once Prohibition took effect, many doctors championed alcohol as medicine. I have always maintained that every family oug ht to have an alcoholic stimulant in the house all the time, one physician told the New York Times. There is nothing more valuable in emergency. The doctor himself always took a drink at the end of the day—It braces me up, he explained—and often prescribed it for patients stricken with nerves. For pneumonia, he

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Group Counseling For Children And Adolescents - 1630 Words

Group Counseling Individuals with learning disabilities have a particularly high incidence of mental health problems and are often assigned what is known as dual diagnosis. The lack of research in counseling this client group and the need for counselors to show that they are not discriminatory in their practices and are compliant with anti-discriminatory legislation adds to the case for placing inclusion/exclusion in counseling in the public arena (Pattison, 2006, p. 547). Introduction Are group counseling sessions used in a school environment the best strategies to help children and adolescents with special needs learn the social skills they will need in life? An article in the peer-reviewed journal Education suggests that indeed, group counseling is an effective way to teach social skills. This paper reviews the article and comments on the learning that was accomplished and discusses in the article. Group Counseling with Students who have Special Needs Derk Stephens and colleagues explain that there are a number of deficits that children and adolescents with special needs that contribute to their struggle to learn. Those deficits include: hyperactivity, distractibility, impulsivity, anxiety, emotional liability, low self-esteem, aggressive behaviors, difficult recognizing the emotions of others along with behaviors that are considered socially unacceptable (Stephens, 509). When children with special needs go through a day exhibiting some of theseShow MoreRelatedThe Juvenile Justice System795 Words   |  4 Pagesdiversion programs, which helps adolescents who have been arrested for first-time misdemeanors. These diversion programs use group counseling as a mandatory component of sentencing demonstrates initial success in reducing recidivism rates in national outcome studies. The goal of these diversion programs is to keep adolescents out of the juvenile justice system whenever possible (Lipsey, Howell, Kelly, Chapman, Carver, 2010). These diversion programs divert adolescents from entering the juvenile justiceRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System778 Words   |  4 Pagesprograms that are used to help adolescents who have been arrested for first-time misdemeanors. These diversion programs use group counseling as a mandatory component of sentencing demonstrate initial success in reducing recidivism rates in national outcome studies. The goal of these d iversion programs are to keep adolescents out of the juvenile justice system whenever possible (Lipsey, Howell, Kelly, Chapman, Carver, 2010). These diversion programs divert adolescents from entering the juvenile justiceRead MoreGroup Counseling824 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction Group counseling can be appealing, but it involves solving a problem common in the group. The goals should be listed to ensure that the counselors achieve their goals, proper research and evaluation should be done before choosing a group. Observation is also critical because it helps the counselor aware of the group process. Group process is a sub- conscious process that takes place within a group as a whole; it involves personal and interpersonal process. Groups involve integrationRead MoreEssay about Consultation and Advocacy in Counseling1478 Words   |  6 PagesConsultation and Advocacy in Counseling Donna Boyett COUN 5004 Survey of Research in Human Development for Professional Counselors August 4, 2012 195 Wayfair Lane Hinesville, GA 31313 Telephone: (912) 980-1231 Email: Instructor: Kathy Blaydes Abstract This paper discuses the importance of social justice advocacy and consultation in the counseling profession. The introduction is an explanation of social justice advocacy, and the different ways counselors advocateRead MorePsychology : A Human s Mind1399 Words   |  6 Pagestaught into and gathered from experiences as a child. As children grow older, they soon start deciphering this information to decide for themselves which of their actions are right and wrong. What draws me to study psychology is this mental processing, and how it affects a person s current and future character; particularly children. Childhood is a stage when a person s individual identity begins to form; Children, more so than any other age group, are easily influenced by their surrounding environment;Read MoreImpact Of Obesity On The Health And Development Of Children And Adolescents1519 Words   |  7 Pagesprofound impact on the health and development of children and adolescents. There are immediate and lon g term health risks, such as, asthma, sleep apnea, orthopedic complications, acid reflux, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistant type 2 diabetes. Severely obese adolescents can suffer serious morbidity. In fact, there are few organs systems that obesity does not affect. Of equal concern, are the teasing, discrimination, and bullying of obese adolescents (Must, 2011). While treatments such as behavioralRead MoreA Research Study On Group Therapy1178 Words   |  5 PagesThe number of children and adolescents who suffer from anxiety have increased tremendously over the past several years. The two treatment options that can be offer to an individual dealing with anxiety is medication and therapy. Out of the two, therapy has been known to be the most effective. Although people are more familiar with traditional therapy, group therapy has become just as prolific. Group counseling is a special type of therapy composed of a small group of individuals under the guidanceRead MoreCounseling Research1570 Words   |  7 Pagesintervention focused on an adolescent with any kind of phobia based on the Solution-Focused Brief therapy. Not to retract in time, but to help the client come up with a possible solution of their phobia within a short amount of time. Different researches show the different ways and strategies of information gained by different counselors. Discuss the importance using research to advance the counseling profession (2 paragraphs) There are many things that research brings to the counseling world; it providesRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Counseling Profession1371 Words   |  6 PagesThe counseling profession can be an excellent, rewarding, and challenging field. The purpose of counseling is to help individuals understand and clarify their own values and beliefs across a lifespan. Counseling also help individuals to become self-sufficient by implementing interventions and strategies that involves goal-setting skills that is meaningful to an individual. Individuals who may seek counseling are individuals who encountered marriage and family issues, stressful or traumatic eventsRead MoreThe Issues Of The Field Of Psychology987 Words   |  4 Pagesinternet is almost mandatory to establish and maintain healthy relationships (Greenfield and Yan, 2006). This is especially true amongst children, adolescents and teenagers. The need for psychologists have never been greater in order to assess how individuals are abl e to acclimate to this societal change. Traditionally, there are two methods in which children, adolescents and teenagers communicate via the internet, through social media and video games. Each primary method presents their own unique social

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Technology and Innovation Management Payment Service Organization

Question: Describe about the Technology and Innovation Management for Payment Service Organization. Answer: Introduction Section 1: First Section MasterCard is one of the leading online payment services organizations in the world today. With the advent of globalization, the online payment processing services has become a key element of the innovations of the new technologies where the consumers use such services for online shopping, touch less transactions and in future to have biometric technology. The firm Master Charge framework was established by some banks of California in 1960s to contest with Visa (earlier known as Bank AmeriCard). The name Master Card was introduced in 1980 and now it is the second largest online payment service in USA after Visa. With the advent of globalization, it has become imperative for Master Card to keep pace with the new rivals existing in the market and thus such competition is both a challenge and an opportunity to the organization. Master Card conquered Euro pay International, one of the leading credit card network in Europe in the year 2002. The banks in Europe that was the holder of Euro pay now holds an ample stake in Master Card. The banks of Europe are habituated of saying a lot about the activities of Master Card in Europe and this loss in trust ultimately affected the IPO negotiations. Creativity refers to the process of innovating values by working differently, and it is generally meant to believe that it is a successful implementation of a new technique, which will be beneficial to generate value. It refers to revolutionary, radical transformation in the idea of a process or product. It can also be minimum alterations which lead to sustainable improvements rather than a huge change. The essential feature of what answers innovation in the industry of financial services is that these transformations need to rise the value for the clients and the manufacturer. The aim of innovation is to bring in a positive change and to improve the process. The meaning of the word value differs from person to person and thus defining it would be like different consumers and markets can seek out different need in something that is costing them the same amount as they find a different beneficial package rendered to them in specific situations. According to Davenport (2013), innovatio ns related to finance is something unique that decreases costs and risks and gives out an updated product or service that satisfies the demands of the participants better. This study will provide information about the logic based analysis of innovation in the payment process that has led to the efficiency in the consumer payment services in Australia and in other countries as well during the last few years. In this respect, it also examines the effect of suitable variables that impede such variables. With new and modern techniques in this industry, such techniques mainly concentrate on a sustainable improvement of the payment process and services, subsequently improving the user proposition of the customers. Adoption of new technologies in the perpetual payment services is an effect of evolution in the technological sector. The mobile phone use as a method of payment channel is also in use in Australia with patience waits for a couple of years after which they are predicted to be introduced in the prevailing market. The paper will thus discuss about the innovative techniques introduced by the Master Card and how the implementation of such mechanism will develop the economy and the standard of living of the citizens of the society. The reason behind choosing the organization Master Card in Australia is due to the fact that there have been significant changes in the Australian payment service over a period of time. The use of paper like cheques as a mode of payment have been replaced by electronic substitutes with paper based transactions limiting to only old and conservative customers. The process of direct debit and direct credit has been in use for the last twenty years but the path of use has changed over the years from the counters of a bank to internet. Internet has been an easier access to the customers and firms has compelled to have a growth in these type of payment process. In the 90s, Telstra (earlier known as Telecom Australia) brought in prepaid stored value cards and in the current scenario such cards are being used very economic sector even in the ATMS. Australia has seen drastic changes with the introduction of substitute electronic payment systems like BPAY, Pay Pal, Post Bill Pay etc in the las t ten years. At the expense of cheque, which have reduced in both value and quantity, electronic payment mechanism has increased to a substantial amount. EFTPOS and credit cards have seen the growth to the largest amount with respect to the number of transactions. The uniqueness in the future step of payment is the use of biometrics which is merging rapidly. Most of the major organizations are using fingerprints for a valid identification to make payments with respect to PIN and signature, which can be duplicated or stolen. For example, the application named Pay-by-Touch used in some supermarkets in US is the perfect example of the use of biometrics. There still has been improvements in the authentication method in the internet payment service and the customers are still worried about the fact that their personal information and payments are not safe yet. Section 2: Collaboration strategies One of the main concerns about every organization is to find answers to the difficult decisions with respect to the operations to be performed internally and externally and whether to operate individually or collaboratively with one or more partners. Collaboration also enables the companies to reach for more at an increased rate with low risk and cost associated to it. But still, there exists a few negatives in collaboration as the new firm can expose the organization to risks (Yoo, 2013). Collaboration sometimes result in giving up a certain degree of supervision on the development and few share predicted awards for the creativity but it can also reveal the industry to risk of misconduct by the partners. Master Card however though does not need any collaboration with any other companies as Master Card itself possesses its own resources and capabilities for the innovation and development of internal projects. The organization also might think of selecting a project of individual venture if it thinks that collaborating might put the technologies at a risk. Few organizations think of avoiding any collaboration as it thinks that the proprietary technologies may not be a secret anymore. If the organization works with another firm, the trade secrets of the organization may get exposed to its rivals. The organizations also seek to have exclusive hold on its own technologies during the development period. Every firm wishes not to disclose its detailed secretes about its product or service for the exchange of any patents and thus most of the enterprise wishes to keep its innovations as trade secrets. Trade secret thus refers to any information that remains solely to particular firm and remains unknown to the others. Any information is treated to be a trade secret only if it shows a distinctive edge to any company in the economic sense and remains valuable only till the time when the information remains private. Thus trade secrets include data about a companys customers, its goals and its business processes. Any data can be treated as a trade secret only if it meets the norms under the Uniform Trade Secret Act. The norms are as follows: The data should not be known or easily available through any legal means. The information should have importance regarding the economy and should remain secret. Reasonable measures must be taken by the holder to keep the information secret. If all the norms are met by any information, then according to the Uniform Trade Secret Act, owner can restrict any third party from taking benefits out of this data without prior permission. The act thus recommends that no one can duplicate or use to reap the benefits out of a trade secret only if they are bound by any confidential duty, or have signed a non disclosure agreement, gained the information through any illegal means or have received the information from someone who is not authorized to disclose it. For example, in many states of USA, if the entrepreneur of a trade secret feels that another party or firm has stolen or revealed its information regarding its trade secrets, then they can take the help of the court to file an injunction against any more use of the trade secret and they can even claim for damages due to any financial and economic injury suffered due to the illegal use of this information. For example, in November 2002, proctor and Gamble claimed that Potlatch Corporation had stolen its trade secrets to manufacture bath tissues and paper towels by employing two of Proctor and Gambles experts of manufacturing. During 2003, both the organizations had come to a settlement out of court keeping the terms of agreements a secret. During the end of the 1990s, Master Card redesigned its image as Priceless during its promotional campaign. The promotion delivers a message unavailability of cash can never stop anyone from generating priceless moments with the friends and families. Every promotional advertisement starts with the image that every service or product is bought with a credit card and is followed by a sentence showing some memorable moments, such as precious time with ones children which is not purchasable (Dodgson, et al., 2015). The word priceless then is shown on the screen along with a voiceover that There are certain things money cant buy and for everything else, theres Master Card. The promotional campaign promotes the organization as a financial service organization that understands family value and supports the restrictions of consumerism. The advertisement also shows that the payment service via Master Card gives a warmer feeling to the family and friends and not any interest charges or late fe es. The organization protects its brand very aggressively and has sued any infringers who have used their tagline Priceless. All the member banks and the merchants need to follow the rules and policies in how they represent the acceptance mark and brand marks. The image of the firm has however been faded through some litigation. The effect on the average customers of such litigation has been minimum, but the antitrust regulators wearing the shoes of the customers view Visa and Master Card to act together as the two major US credit card organizations like the next Microsoft (Shani, Chalasani, 2013). The advantage of such aggressive mentality of the firm can be seen at present. Master Card has complete control on their process of development though having a partnership can save money and time. They think that efforts for development are the essential elements to create and renew its abilities. Individual development of innovations pertaining to technology creates a challenge to the enterprise to establish new skills, market knowledge and resources. There are several reasons for an industry to choose an individual development but there exists several factors for a firm to engage in collaborative development and thus there exists an increase in such initiatives. The next part of the paper, discussions will be done for the advantages of collaboration and weaknesses and strengths of various types of collaboration (Norman, Verganti, 2014). External perspective The existing rivalry degree There is a high level of competition for Master Card as a technological processing payment unit. Its biggest rival is Visa as they have a similar structure of business as Master Card. The threat of Potential Entrants The level of new entry in this sector is minimum as the level of global processing payment facilities is huge. New entrants such as Jacobs, American Express and Diner pose minimum threat to Master Card. Bargaining power of Suppliers There is no supplier for Master Card as it is a technology organization and are continuously developing new ideas and security organizations act together to regenerate proper software and hardware. Bargaining power of Buyers There exist a lot of buyers for the firm such as banks, consumers and government thus creating a high bargaining power on Master Card as there is very similar substitute to this firm that gives same sort of service at the same price. Threat of new substitutes There is no substitute for such firms. Master Card is showing the way for universal payments processing. The chances of a new rival entering the market with some new ideas of seamless and easy payments that is globally accepted is very low. The reason is that the banks, governments and the consumers have a lot of trust in the existing firms such as Master Card, American Express and Visa (Lages, 2016). Internal Perspective Does the firm have a different source of competitive differentiation? The firm Master Card has met all the Hamels and Prahalad 3 criteria. The technology used by Master Card to present to the banks allows the customers to get benefit of cashless payments that is more appropriate. It is very difficult for the rivals to duplicate as Master Card holds the technology that is essential to perform such universal technology that can be used for many different services and products. Does the competency responds to a single business? The competency only transcends to a single business as Master Card is such a huge organization that any technological changes have become difficult for application. Thus they have established their own labs, which is a different department all together concentrated to innovate Master Card. Thus, the firm only concentrates on functioning the present business at a worldwide range and the labs concentrate on providing the current innovations and security. Are the competitors having difficulty to imitate the competency? It is hard to duplicate the competency for the new industries in the market. but for the existing rivals, there exists only one renowned competitor who is doing same job. Still, they have unlike business goals and aims. Master Card is the processor of the largest number of payments globally whereas Visa is the manufacturer of the highest number of bank cards with the largest number of customers who globally accept Visa. Section 3: Types and Patterns of Innovation The process through which the decision making authority is kept at the top level management is through centralization whereas decentralization involves the decision making to be done at the lowest levels of management. Centralization often comprise of both the geographical performance and to the place where the command over the performances are situated. It means that the operations may take place at a location far away from the head office but the decisions pertaining to the operations are taken in the head office itself resulting to an increased centralization than their physical location would have assumed. With respect to the industries having a number of research and development projects the problem arises whether to have a centralized and decentralized system becomes a complex issue. Decentralizing the RD operations to the different sectors of the industry often leads to innovative process and product which are in terms of the needs of the particular departments. The answers they create are in close relation to the department and the needs of the customers served by them. The projects for development also use the knowledge diversification and contacts in the market that exists in the differen t departments. But there exists a risk for recreating the wheel when the RD operations are decentralized. The repetitive RD operations can be functioned in different departments but the full promise of the technology to generate the value in the other sections of the company may not be found out properly. Moreover, keeping so many RD increases the economies of scale and the curve effects. In the other respect, if an organization undertakes centralization, it can maximize the curve effect and the economies of scale in the RD providing an increased division of labor in the experts working in the RD. The centralization also finds out the new innovations and technologies throughout the organization, increasing the consistency of the organizations new product or service development initiatives. There are certain arguments regarding the centralization and decentralization of certain departments of an organization. The use of decentralized and centralized process for development varies from firms to firms. A study by Tim Opler and Laura Cardinal pointed out that organizations, which are research oriented are more likely to establish individual RD creativity centers to improve the innovation transfers across the departments and also to provide a better communication system. Another evaluation by Peter Golder revealed that during the production customer products, an organization uses more decentralized RD providing projects according to the demand in the local market whereas focused with electronic business positions its RD in the centers of excellence that focused on only providing competencies. A firm with high centralization can able to make aggressive transformations in the direction and due its compact control and command structure helps to implement any changes in the low er levels. The decentralized firms may have difficulties to get cooperation from all the necessary departments for any significant changes. But in case of any environmental or technological changes, the decentralized units respond better as all decisions do not require to be taken permission from the higher level and thus changes are initiated rapidly. Successful procedural innovation can only take place when the partners, alliances and collaborators work closely and efficiently. The ideas created are then re-crafted and then becomes enhanced through inputs form different locations and groups putting in new skills and ideas and experiences. The implementation of PIN and Chip is an exclusive example of how rivals can introduce innovative products in the market. Master Card and Visa are thus can be viewed as firms co-operating before their public listings. It is on the basis of the co-operative entity principles, which are as follows: All the participants should have an equitable hold along with the provision of keeping it open to all knowledgeable participants. The authority needs to be distributive and equitable along with having the maximum possible degree that all the activities need to be voluntary. With respect to the above principles discussed, the US banks have accomplished few things which they would have been able to do on their own without taking such ample risks. The model of co-operation has provided all the banks to monitor and take command of their own products along with having the power to reach the national and compete with the big players like American Express and Diners Club. The organizations competing are not only the participants in need of some level of communication before any creativity can be gained. There exists an interrelationship with the merchants, suppliers, government and the other rivals in the market (Aghion et al., 2016). The First XI study established that the essential elemen t of winning network, a model identified as looking in and looking out. The First XI firms are concentrated in a number of ways, which are as follows: Their main concentration is on their clients to satisfy them. They work in co-operation with the other rivals. They take the initiative of making the future better. They even focus on going outside Australia as well They created a sense of responsibility towards the society. Out of all the points, working in hand in hand with the collaborators is the most important point for creativity and innovation. For example, Macquarie Bank is renowned for its variety of new and improved service and product developments but most of the organizations operations are done along with the joint venture with one or more partners. Though, the payment processing units in Australia had in past shown the capability to join hands to innovate, through the example of introduction of BPAY and EFTPOS in the most recent developmental projects, such projects have faced problems in gaining contracts from the institutions as projected by the postponement of the project BPAY assured that its MAMBO project had been postponed for a twelve month evaluation, during the period when the leading banks asked BPAY to curtail its present developmental rounds of work on the firms initiation and to reanalyze the project in the middle of 2009. The process goes down to how Master Card labs have implemented such innovations. It is often seen that innovations are generated to bridge in gaps in the market or respond according to the needs of the merchant and the consumers. The bigger merchants will thrive for innovations in a respond to increase the convenience, speed and loyalty towards the clients to decrease the expenditure and increase the profit margin. Such an incident is often seen globally in the present. It is thus done through proper business function to implement innovation in electronic payment process as well as finding out the craze for innovation. The payment service providers cannot predict that a creativity service will increase an substantial amount of demand among the customers just due to the fact that the service renders new technological abilities in an innovative way. The next aspect involves the provision of net benefit for a transaction, which mostly the banks and the other financial service providers give implement successful innovation. The creativenesses which need less changes from the known practices have more acceptance than the ones which are new and unknown and thus require a change in the behavior. The use of technologies to induce the existing payment facilities enhances an enterprise to take fruit out of the established practice system known to the customers to decrease their start up costs. The new payment systems usually contend with the older ones for financial resources and to seek attention from the management. The projects, which are long-term, pose a threat to the active business function with respe ct to the profitable debit and credit card activities who may not get the support from the industry due to conflicts among the different departments and having a horizon of short planning. The crucial network and mass effects can postpone the implementation of a cost-effective and useful creativity technique which results to the lock in of the products which are old (Johnston, Marshall, 2016). The crucial step for Master Card was the establishment of their labs, which was a big leap toward undergoing a business renovation. The ability to create new and innovative products efficiently and rapidly is the most vital factor for their success. Industries related to hardware, software, electronics etc often depend on their innovations, which respond to the increase in their sales. The key elements required for an effective product development is maximizing the requirements according to the clients, minimizing the time of production and limiting the development expenses. A new product to be successful in the market needs to offer better quality, attractive features and effective pricing than its rival products. Still many firms fail to maintain these features as they do not have a clear idea of the features the customers prefer or placing the product at a price range thinking that the customers will purchase it because of its new features (Baden-Fuller., Haefliger, 2013). The or ganizations too have problems of resolving the heterogeneity in the demands of the customers as when some customer base requires some other features, the enterprise might create a product compromising among the conflicting demands which results in the failure of the product to attract customer base. Finally an organization with a limited development cycle can quickly transform its product and provides designs which are due to technological advancement. An organization with such a cycle can take the advantage of both the first and second mover. The speedy production of new products also results in the degradation of the quality and poor market introduction (Amit ., Zott, 2012). 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